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Diamond Sutra

金刚般若波罗蜜经

 


法会因由分第一 

THE REASONS FOR THE DHARMA ASSEMBLY, ONE 


Thus I have heard. 

如是我闻。 

Once upon a time, the Buddha sojourned in the Jetavana park near Sravasti with an assembly of twelve hundred and fifty bhiksus. 

一时佛在舍卫国。祗树给孤独园。与大比丘众。千二百五十人俱。 

One day, at mealtime, the World Honored One put on His robe, took His bowl, and entered the great town of Sravasti to beg for His food. 

尔时,世尊食时,著衣持钵,入舍卫大城乞食。 

He had begged from door to door, He returned to His place. 

于其城中,次第乞已,还至本处。 

When He had taken His meal, He put away His robe and bowl, washed His feet, arranged His seat and sat down. 

饭食讫,收衣钵,洗足已,敷座而坐。 



善现祈请分第二 

SUBHUTI'S REQUEST, TWO 


At the time, the elder Subhuti who was in the assembly, rose from his seat, 

时,长老须菩提在大众中即从座起, 

uncovered his right shoulder, 

偏袒右肩, 

knelt upon his right knee, 

右膝著地, 

respectfully joined the palms of his hands and said to the Buddha: 

合掌恭敬而白佛言: 

“It is very rare, O World Honoured One! 

希有!世尊! 

“how well the Tathagata protects and thinks of all Bodhisattvas; how well He instructs all the Bodhisattvas. 

如来善护念诸菩萨,善付嘱诸菩萨。 

“O World Honoured One, 

世尊! 

“when virtuous men or women develop the supreme-enlightenment mind, 

善男子、善女人,发阿耨多罗三藐三菩提心 

“how should their minds abide and how should they be subdued?” 

应云何住?云何降伏其心? 

The Buddha said: 

佛言: 

“Excellent, excellent, Subhuti! 

善哉,善哉。须菩提! 

“As you say, the Tathagata protects, cherishes and instructs Bodhisattvas so well. 

如汝所说:如来善护念诸菩萨,善付嘱诸菩萨, 

“Now listen attentively and I will tell you how the minds of virtuous men and women, 

汝今谛听!当为汝说:善男子、善女人, 

“who develop the supreme enlightenment mind, 

发阿耨多罗三藐三菩提心, 

“should thus abide and be subdued.” 

应如是住,如是降伏其心。 

(Subhuti replied:) “Oh yes, World Honored One, I shall be glad to hear (your instruction).” 

唯然。世尊!愿乐欲闻。 



大乘正宗分第三 

THE ORTHODOX DOCTRINE OF THE GREAT VEHICLE, THREE 


The Buddha said: “Subhuti, 

佛告须菩提: 

“all Bodhisattvas and Mahasattvas should subdue their minds as follows: 

诸菩萨摩诃萨应如是降伏其心! 

“All living beings born from eggs, wombs, humidity or by transformation 

所有一切众生之类:若卵生、若胎生、若湿生、 若化生; 

“with or without form, 

若有色、若无色; 

“either thoughtful or thoughtless, 

若有想、若无想、 

“and neither thoughtful nor thoughtless 

若非有想非无想, 

“are all led by me to the final nirvana for the extinction of reincarnation 

我皆令入无余涅槃而灭度之。 

“Although immeasurable, uncountable and unlimitable numbers of living beings are thus led to (the final nirvana for) the extinction of reincarnation, 

如是灭度无量无数无边众生, 

“it is true that not a living being is led there. 

实无众生得灭度者。 

“Why so, Subhuti? 

何以故? 须菩提! 

“(Because) if a Bodhisattva (still) clings to the false notion (laksana) of an ego, a personality, a being and a life, he is not ( a true) Bodhisattva. 

若菩萨有我相、人相、众生相、寿者相,即非菩萨。 



妙行无住分第四 

WONDERFUL PRACTICE IS TO NOT RELY ON ANYTHING, FOUR 

“Furthermore, Subhuti, 

复次,须菩提! 

“a Bodhisattva's mind should not abide anywhere when giving alms; 

菩萨于法,应无所住,行于布施, 

“that is to say, he should give without a mind abiding in form, 

所谓不住色布施, 

“or he should give without a mind abiding in sound, or in smell, or in taste, or in touch or in things . 

不住声香味触法布施。 

“Subhuti thus a Bodhisattva should give alms without a mind abiding in false notions of form (laksana) 

须菩提!菩萨应如是布施,不住于相。 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“(Because) if a Bodhisattva's mind does not abide in forms. (laksanas) when practicing charity (dana), 

若菩萨不住相布施, 

“his merit will be inconceivable and immeasurable. 

其福德不可思量。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? Can you think of and measure the extent of space in the East?” 

须菩提!于意云何?东方虚空可思量不? 

“I cannot, World Honored One! 

不也,世尊! 

“Subhuti, can you think of and measure (all) the extent of space in the South, West and North, as well as in the intermediate directions, including the zenith and nadir?” 

须菩提!南西北方四维上下虚空可思量不? 

“I cannot, World Honoured One!” 

不也,世尊! 

“Subhuti, (when) a Bodhisattva practices charity without a mind abiding in forms, 

须菩提!菩萨无住相布施, 

“his merit is equally inconceivable and immeasurable. 

福德亦复如是不可思量。 

“Subhuti, a Bodhisattva's mind should thus abide as taught. 

须菩提!菩萨但应如所教住。

 

如理实见分第五 

GENUINE DISCERNMENT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUCHNESS, FIVE 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“Can the Tathagata be seen by means of His bodily form?” 

可以身相见如来不? 

“No, World Honoured One, the Tathgate cannot be seen by means of His bodily form. 

不也,世尊!不可以身相得见如来。 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because when the Tathagata speaks of bodily form, it is not (real) form.” 

如来所说身相,即非身相。 

The Buddha said to Subhuti: 

佛告须菩提: 

“Everything with form is unreal; 

凡所有相,皆是虚妄。 

“if all forms are seen as unreal, the Tathagata will be perceived.” 

若见诸相非相,则见如来。 



正信希有分第六 

PROPER FAITH IS RARE, SIX 

Subhuti said to the Buddha: 

须菩提白佛言: 

“World Honored One, will there be living beings who can develop a true belief in these words, sentences and chapters when they are expounded to them?” 

世尊!颇有众生,得闻如是言说章句,生实信不? 

The Buddha said: “Subhuti, do not speak like that. 

佛告须菩提:莫作是说。 

“In the last 500 years, before the final passing of the Tathagata, 

如来灭后,后五百岁, 

“there will be those who will observe the rules of morality and perform good actions which will result in blessing. 

有持戒修福者, 

“These people will be able to develop a faith in these sentences which they will consider as embodying the Truth. 

于此章句能生信心,以此为实, 

“You should know that they will not have planted good roots in just one, two, three, four, or five Buddha lands. 

当知是人不于一佛二佛三四五佛而种善根, 

“They will have planted them in countless thousands and tens of thousands of Buddha lands. 

已于无量千万佛所种诸善根, 

“Upon hearing these sentences, there will arise in them a single thought of pure faith. 

闻是章句,乃至一念生净信者, 

“Subhuti, the Tathagata knows and sees all; 

须菩提!如来悉知悉见, 

“these living beings will thus acquire immeasurable merits. 

是诸众生得如是无量福德。 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“(Because) they will have wiped out false notions of an ego, a personality, a being and a life, of Dharma and Not-Dharma. 

是诸众生无复我相、人相、众生相、寿者相。无法相,亦无非法相。 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“(Because) if their minds grasp form (laksana), they will (still) cling to the notion of an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

是诸众生若心取相,即为著我人众生寿者。 

“If their minds grasp the Dharma, they will (still) cling to the notion of an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

若取法相,即著我人众生寿者。 

“ Why? 

何以故? 

“(Because) if their minds grasp the Not-Dharma, they will (still) cling to the notion of an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

若取非法相,即著我人众生寿者, 

“Therefore, one should not grasp and hold on to the notion of Dharma as well as that of Not-Dharma. 

是故不应取法,不应取非法。 

“This is why, 

以是义故, 

“the Tathagata always said: 

如来常说: 

“‘Ye Bhiksus, should know that the Dharma I expound is likened to a raft.’ 

汝等比丘,知我说法,如筏喻者, 

“Even the Dharma should be cast aside; how much more so the Not-Dharma? 

法尚应舍,何况非法。 



无得无说分第七 

NOTHING ATTAINED, NOTHING SPOKEN, SEVEN 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“Has the Tathagata(in fact) obtained Supreme Enlightenment (Anubodhi)? 

如来得阿耨多罗三藐三菩提耶? 

“Does the Tathagata (in fact) expound the Dharma?” 

如来有所说法耶? 

Subhuti replied: 

须菩提言: 

“As I understand the meaning of the Buddha's teaching, 

如我解佛所说义, 

“there is no fixed Dharma called Supreme Enlightenment and there is also no fixed Dharma the Tathagata can expound. 

无有定法名阿耨多罗三藐三菩提,亦无有定法,如来可说。 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“(Because) the Dharma the Tathagata expounds cannot be clung to and cannot be expressed (in words); it is neither Dharma nor Not-Dharma. 

如来所说法,皆不可取、不可说、非法、非非法。 

“Why is this? 

所以者何? 

“All Bhadras and Aryas differ on account of the Eternal Asamskrta Dharma.” 

一切贤圣,皆以无为法而有差别。 



依法出生分第八 

THEY ARISE FROM DHARMA, EIGHT 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“If someone filled the Universe with the seven treasures and gave them all as alms, would his merit be great?” 

若人满三千大千世界七宝以用布施,是人所得福德,宁为多不? 

Subhuti replied: “Very great, World Honoured One. 

须菩提言:甚多,世尊! 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because this merit is not the nature of merit, the Tathagata says it is great.” 

是福德即非福德性,是故如来说福德多。 

“Subhuti, if on the other hand, someone received and kept even a four line stanza of this sutra and expounded it to others, his merit would surpass that (of the giver of treasures). 

若复有人,于此经中受持,乃至四句偈等,为他人说,其福胜彼。 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“ (Because), Subhuti, all Buddhas and their Supreme-Enlightenment-Dharma originate from this sutra. 

须菩提!一切诸佛,及诸佛阿耨多罗三藐三菩提法,皆从此经出。 

“Subhuti, the so-called Buddhas and Dharmas are not real Buddhas and Dharmas. 

须菩提!所谓佛、法者,即非佛、法。 



一相无相分第九 

THE ONE APPEARANCE IS BEYOND APPEARANCES, NINE 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“Can one who has entered the stream (srota-apanna) have this thought (in his mind): I have obtained the fruit of entering the stream?” 

须陀洹能作是念:“我得须陀洹果”不? 

Subhuti replied: “No, World Honoured One. 

须菩提言:不也,世尊! 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because srota-apanna means 'entering the stream', 

须陀洹名为入流, 

“but actually there is no entry into either form, sound, smell, taste, touch or dharma. 

而无所入,不入色声香味触法, 

“Therefore, he is called srota-apanna.” 

是名须陀洹。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“Can a Sakrdagamin have this thought (in his mind): I have obtained the fruit of a Sakrdagamin?” 

斯陀含能作是念:“我得斯陀含果”不? 

Subhuti replied: 'No, World Honored One. 

须菩提言:‘不也,世尊! 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because Sakrdagamin means 刼nce more to come, 

斯陀含名一往来, 

“but actually there is neither coming nor going. 

而实无往来, 

“Therefore, he is called a Sakrdagamin.” 

是名斯陀含。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“Can an Anagamin have this thought (in his mind): I have obtained the fruit of an Anagamin?” 

阿那含能作是念:“我得阿那含果”不? 

Subhuti replied: “No, World Honoured One. 

须菩提言:不也,世尊! 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because Anagamin means ‘no-coming’ but actually there is no such a thing as no-coming. 

阿那含名为不来,而实无不来, 

“Therefore, he is called an Anagamin.” 

是故名阿那含。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

须菩提!于意云何? 

“Can an Arhat have this thought (in his mind): I have obtained the enlightenment of an Arhat?” 

阿罗汉能作是念:“我得阿罗汉道”不? 

Subhuti replied: “No, World Honoured One. 

须菩提言:‘不也,世尊! 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because there is no Dharma which is called Arhatship. 

实无有法名阿罗汉。 

“World Honoured One, 

世尊! 

“if an Arhat thinks ‘I have obtained the enlightenment of an Arhat’, 

若阿罗汉作是念:“我得阿罗汉道”, 

“he will still grasp and hold on to the notion of an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

即为著我人众生寿者。 

“World Honored One, 

世尊! 

“the Buddha has declared that I have obtained the Passionless Samadhi and that I surpass all men. I am, therefore, the highest passionless Arhat. 

佛说我得无诤三昧,人中最为第一,是第一离欲阿罗汉。 

“World Honored One, I do not think ‘I am a passionless Arhat, for, 

世尊,我不作是念:“我是离欲阿罗汉”。 

“World Honored One, if I had thought ‘I have attained Arhatship’, 

世尊!我若作是念:“我得阿罗汉道”, 

“the World Honored One would not have said: ‘Subhuti takes delight in- the calm and quiet, free from temptation and distress. 

世尊则不说须菩提是乐阿兰那行者! 

“The fact that Subhuti does not act (mentally) is called the calm and quiet in which Subhuti takes delight.” 

以须菩提实无所行,而名须菩提是乐阿兰那行。 



庄严净土分第十 

ADORNING PURE LANDS, TEN 

The Buddha said to Subhuti: 

佛告须菩提: 

“What do you think.? 

于意云何? 

“Did the Tathagata obtain anything from: he Dharma, when in the past He was with Dipamkara Buddha?” 

如来昔在燃灯佛所,于法有所得不? 

“No, World Honoured One. 

不也,世尊! 

“When the Tathagata was with Dipamkara, He did not obtain anything from the Dharma.” 

如来在燃灯佛所,于法实无所得。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? 

菩提!于意云何? 

“Do Bodhisattvas adorn Buddha lands (by their moral actions)?” 

须菩萨庄严佛土不? 

“No. World Honoured One. 

不也,世尊! 

“Why? 

何以故? 

“Because this is not real adornment; it is (merely) called the adornment of Buddha lands.” 

庄严佛土者,则(即)非庄严,是名庄严。 

“Subhuti, this is why all Bodhisattvas and Mahasattvas should thus develop a pure and clean mind which should not abide in form, sound, smell, taste, touch and dharma. 

是故须菩提,诸菩萨摩诃萨应如是生清净心,不应住色生心,不应住声香味触法生心, 

“They should develop a mind which does not abide in anything. 

应无所住而生其心。 

“Subhuti, supposing a man has a body as great as mount Sumeru, 

须菩提!譬如有人,身如须弥山王, 

“what do you think? 

于意云何? 

“Would such a body be great?” 

是身为大不? 

Subhuti replied: “Very great, World Honored One. 

须菩提言:甚大,世尊!Why? 何以故? 

“Because the Buddha says it is not the real body but is (merely) called a 
great body.” 

佛说非身,是名大身。

 

无为福胜分第十一 

THE SUPREMACY OF UNCONDITIONED BLESSINGS, ELEVEN 

“Subhuti, if there were as many rivers like the Ganges as there are grains of sand in the Ganges, 

须菩提!如恒河中所有沙数,如是沙等恒河, 

“would the total of grains of sand in all these rivers be very great?” 

于意云何?是诸恒河沙宁为多不? 

Subhuti replied: “Very great, World Honored One!” 

须菩提言:甚多,世尊! 

“These rivers would be innumerable; how much more so would be their sand- 
grains. 

但诸恒河尚多无数,何况其沙! 

“Subhuti, I now tell you truly. 

须菩提!我今实言告汝: 

“If a virtuous man or woman filled a number of universes, as great as the number of sand-grains in all these rivers, with the seven treasures, and gave them all away in alms (dana), 

若有善男子、善女人,以七宝满尔所恒河沙数三千大千世界,以用布施, 

“would his or her merit be great?” 

得福多不? 

Subhuti replied: “Very great, World Honoured One!” 

须菩提言:甚多,世尊! 

The Buddha said to Subhuti: 

佛告须菩提: 

“If a virtuous man or woman receives and holds (in mind) even a four-line stanza of this sutra and expounds it to others, his or her merit will surpass that of the almsgiver. 

若善男子、善女人,于此经中,乃至受持四句偈等,为他人说,而此福德胜前福德。 


尊重正教分第十二 

REVERING THE PROPER TEACHING, TWELVE 

“Furthermore, Subhuti, 

复次,须菩提! 

“wheresoever this sutra or even one of its four-line stanzas is expounded, 

随说是经,乃至四句偈等, 

“you should know that all devas, men and asuras should make their offerings there as if the place was a Buddha stupa or a Buddha temple. 

当知此处,一切世间、天、人、阿修罗,皆应供养,如佛塔庙, 

“How much more so if someone is able to receive, hold (in mind), read and recite the whole sutra! 

何况有人尽能受持读诵。 

“Subhuti, you should know that such a person will achieve the highest and rarest Dharma. 

须菩提!当知是人成就最上第一希有之法, 

“Wheresoever this sutra may be found the Buddha and His respected disciples will be there also.” 

若是经典所在之处,则为有佛,若尊重弟子。 



如法受持分第十三 

ACCEPTING AND UPHOLDING THE DHARMA OF "THUSNESS", THIRTEEN 

Subhuti then asked the Buddha: 

尔时,须菩提白佛言: 

“World Honoured One, what name should be given to this sutra and how should we receive and hold it (in mind)?” 

世尊!当何名此经?我等云何奉持? 

The Buddha said: 

佛告须菩提: 

“This sutra should be called ‘The Diamond prajna-paramita’ under which name you should receive and hold it. 

是经名为《金刚般若波罗蜜》,以是名字,汝当奉持。 

“Why? Because, Subhuti, 

所以者何?须菩提! 

“the Prajna- paramita as expounded by the Buddha, is not Prajna- paramita but is (merely) so called. 

佛说般若波罗蜜,则非般若波罗蜜。是名般若波罗蜜。 

“Subhuti, what do you think Does the Tathagata expound the Dharma?” 

须菩提!于意云何?如来有所说法不? 

Subhuti said: “World Honoured One, the Tathagata does not expound anything.” 

须菩提白佛言:世尊!如来无所说。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? Are there many particles of dust in the universe?” 

须菩提!于意云何?三千大千世界所有微尘是为多不? 

Subhuti replied: “Many, World Honoured One!” 

须菩提言:甚多,世尊! 

“Subhuti, the Tathagata says these particles of dust are not (real), (but) are (merely) called particles of dust. 

须菩提!诸微尘,如来说非微尘,是名微尘。 

“The Tathagata says the universe is not (real), but it is (merely) called the universe. 

如来说:世界,非世界,是名世界。 

“Subhuti, what do you think? Can the Tathagata be perceived by means of His thirty-two physical characteristics ( laksanas )?” 

须菩提!于意云何?可以三十二相见如来不? 

“'No, World Honoured One. The Tathagata cannot be perceived by them. 

不也,世尊!不可以三十二相得见如来。 

“Why? Because the Tathagata says they are not real but are (merely) called the thirty-two physical characteristics.” 

何以故?如来说:三十二相,即是非相,是名三十二相。 

“Subhuti, if on the one hand, a virtuous man or woman, in giving alms (dana), sacrifices as many lives as there are sand-grains in the Ganges, and on the other hand, 

须菩提!若有善男子、善女人,以恒河沙等身命布施; 

“someone receives and holds (in mind) even a four-line stanza of this sutra, and expounds it to other, the merit resulting from the latter will be greater.” 

若复有人,于此经中,乃至受持四句偈等,为他人说,其福甚多! 



离相寂灭分第十四 

LEAVING APPEARANCES AND STILL CESSATION, FOURTEEN 

At that time, after listening to this sutra, Subhuti had understood its profound meaning and was moved to tears. 

尔时,须菩提闻说是经,深解义趣,涕泪悲泣, 

He said to the Buddha: “How rare, O World Honored One! 

而白佛言:希有,世尊! 

“The Buddha has expounded such a very profound sutra. 

佛说如是甚深经典, 

“Since I have acquired the wisdom eye, I have not heard of such a sutra. 

我从昔来所得慧眼,未曾得闻如是之经。 

“World Honored One, if someone after listening to this sutra believes that his mind is clean and pure, he will realise reality. 

世尊!若复有人得闻是经,信心清净,则生实相, 

“We should know that such a person will achieve the highest and rarest merit. 

当知是人,成就第一希有功德。 

“World Honored One, this Reality is not Reality but the Tathagata calls it Reality. 

世尊!是实相者,则是非相,是故如来说名实相。 

“World Honored One, as I now listen to this sutra I have no difficulty in believing, understanding, receiving and holding it, 

世尊!我今得闻如是经典,信解受持不足为难, 

“but in the last epoch, the last five hundred year period if there be a man who (happens to) listen to this sutra, believes, understands receives and holds it, he will be most rare. 

若当来世,后五百岁,其有众生,得闻是经,信解受持,是人则为第一希有。 

“Why? Because he will no longer (think in terms of) an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

何以故?此人无我相、人相、众生相、寿者相。 

“Why? Because the forms of an ego, a personality, a being and a life are not forms. 

所以者何?我相即是非相,人相、众生相、寿者相即是非相。 

“Why? Because when he has rejected all forms he is called a Buddha.” 

何以故?离一切诸相,则(即)名诸佛。 

The Buddha said: “Just so! Subhuti, just so! 

佛告须菩提:如是!如是! 

“If on the one hand, there be a man who listens to this sutra and is not filled with alarm, fear, or dread, 

若复有人,得闻是经,不惊、不怖、不畏, 

“you should know that such a person is most rare. 

当知是人甚为希有。 

“Why? Because, Subhuti, 

何以故?须菩提! 

“as the Tathagata says, 

如来说: 

“the first perfection ( paramita) is not so (but) is (merely) called the first perfection (paramita.) 

第一波罗蜜,非第一波罗蜜,是名第一波罗蜜。 

“Subhuti, the Tathagata speaks of the Perfection of Patience (ksanti paramita) which is not but is called the Perfection of Patience. 

须菩提!忍辱波罗蜜,如来说非忍辱波罗蜜。是名忍辱波罗蜜。 

“Why? Because, Subhuti, 

何以故?须菩提! 

“in (a) past (life) when my body was mutilated by Kaliraja, 

如我昔为歌利王割截身体, 

“I had at that time no notion of an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

我于尔时,无我相、无人相、无众生相、无寿者相。 

“Why? Because, in the past, when my body was dismembered, if I (still) held the conception of an ego, a personality, a being and a life, 

何以故?我于往昔节节支解时,若有我相、人相、众生相、寿者相, 

“I would have been stirred by feelings of anger and hatred. 

应生嗔恨。 

“Subhuti, I also remember that in the past, during my former five hundred lives, I was a Ksantyrsi and held no conception of an ego, a personality, a being and a life. 

须菩提!又念过去于五百世作忍辱仙人,于尔所世,无我相、无人相、无众生相、无寿者相。 

“Therefore, Subhuti, Bodhisattvas should forsake all conceptions of form and resolve to develop the Supreme Enlightenment Mind (Anuttara-samyaksam-bodhi). 

是故须菩提!菩萨应离一切相,发阿耨多罗三藐三菩提心,